Organs and Mechanisms

CXR and its Associates have extensive experience of designing, running and interpreting hypothesis-based toxicology studies to identify the mechanism of toxicity of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, chemicals and consumer products.

This experience spans multiple organs, test systems and modes of action (MOAs).  Our experience also spans the R&D process, from discovery models to predict preclinical or clinical toxicity risk, through to mechanistic studies to support registrations and re-registrations.

Examples of mechanisms investigated and models established include:




Reproductive Organs – Testes, Uterus


  • Predictive studies, e.g. non histopathology endpoints for early detection of retinal toxicity


  • Nanoparticle mediated modes of action
  • Mouse lung Club (Clara) cell cytotoxicity mode of action via metabolic activation by e.g. Cyp2f2
  • Development of an in vivo model for vascular leak
  • Lung irritancy modes of action


  • AHR-mediated modes of action
  • MMP mediated modes of action


  • Steroid mediated modes of action
  • Differential bone marrow toxicity via kinase inhibitors in diseased vs. non diseased situations